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PARKINSON'S DISEASE

Parkinson's disease is a chronic degenerative disease of the nervous system. Although it is generally thought of as a disease of old age, It can also occur in middle age and can take years or decades to manifest severe symptoms.

When an individual develops Parkinson's disease they have high levels of the protein alpha-synuclein which is believed to be responsible for causing the damage in the brain. It has also been discovered that the balance of the intestinal flora is connected with this damage. An overgrowth of particular bacteria in the intestines release chemicals that cause the immune system to attack brain cells.

Adjusting the diet to include plenty of fibre may help to correct the balance as can adding prebiotic and probiotic foods to the diet. Anything that can upset the normal balance of gut bacteria should be avoided such as taking antibiotics. They should only be taken when absolutely necessary as they also kill the beneficial bacteria in the guts which then allows the pathogenic bacteria to thrive. See Imbalance of Intestinal flora below.

A healthy varied diet and regular exercise, to keep the limbs supple, is very important when combating the affects of Parkinson's disease.

 

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The causes of all degenerative nerve diseases include (but are not restricted to) the following factors:

 

NOTE: Supplements of nutrients are not recommended for anyone, especially those suffering with Parkinson's disease. Always consume foods rich in the nutrients required instead as harmful imbalances can result from supplements which can further aggravate symptoms.

 

Carbon monoxide poisoning

 

Carbon monoxide poisoning can cause symptoms of Parkinson's disease (Parkinsonism) due to the damage caused in the brain but in general these symptoms will resolve themselves around six months after the carbon monoxide toxicity took place.

 

Symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning

  • Gait disturbance (short-step gait)

  • Glabellar reflex (tapping on forehead)

  • Hypokinesia (muscle movement loss)

  • Impaired mentality

  • Increased muscle tone (rigidity)

  • Intentional (cerebellar) tremor

  • Masked face

  • Mutism

  • Palmar grasp reflex

  • Retropulsion (loss of balance in a backwards or posterior direction)

  • Urinary incontinence

Chronic infection

Testing for infections must be carried out, especially for Lyme disease which can produce the same symptoms as Parkinson's disease. There are many antimicrobial fruit, herbs, minerals, nutrients, spices and vegetables that can help the body fight off infections. See the following pages:

Dopamine deficiency

Dopamine is a neurotransmitter the body makes from the amino acid tyrosine. Neurotransmitters are the brain chemicals that motivate or sedate, focus or frustrate.

Highest sources of tyrosine in milligrams per 100 grams

 

  • Chlorella (dried) 2600 mg

  • Spirulina (dried) 2584 mg

  • Sesame seed flour 2100 mg

  • Whelks 1518 mg

  • Caviar (fish roe) 1121 mg

  • Salmon 1100 mg

  • Lamb’s liver 1090 mg

  • Quail 1048 mg

  • Chicken 1047 mg

  • Calf’s liver 1044 mg

  • Peanuts 1006 mg

  • Beef (lean mince) 829 mg

  • Shrimp and prawns 810 mg

  • Pheasant 799 mg

  • Mackerel (tinned) 783 mg

  • Rabbit 776 mg

  • Pumpkin seeds 770 mg

  • Mussels 762 mg

  • Sesame seeds 710 mg

  • Sunflower seeds 666 mg

  • Turkey 660 mg

  • Soya beans 630 mg

  • Crayfish 532 mg

  • Pine nuts 509 mg

  • Eggs 500 mg

  • Squid 498 mg

  • Almonds 452 mg

  • Walnuts 406 mg

  • Wheat 400 mg

  • Rye 339 mg

  • Black beans 250 mg

  • Spinach 215 mg

  • Goat’s milk 179 mg

  • Mustard greens 119 mg

  • Cows’ milk 152 mg

The amino acids tyrosine and  tryptophan must both cross the blood-brain barrier along the same pathway. If tryptophan crosses the barrier, it will have a calming effect. If tyrosine gets through then the body and mind will be energised and alert.

Highest sources of tryptophan in milligrams per 100 grams

  • Spirulina (dried) 929 mg

  • Chia seeds 721 mg

  • Whelks 618 mg

  • Soya beans 590 mg

  • Pumpkin and squash seeds 578 mg

  • Chlorella (dried) 500 mg

  • Safflower seeds 403 mg

  • Watermelon seeds 390 mg

  • Sesame seeds 388 mg

  • Chicken 362 mg

  • Calf’s liver 361 mg

  • Lamb’s liver 355 mg

  • Quail 354 mg

  • Sunflower seeds 348 mg

  • Pheasant 339 mg

  • Cheddar cheese 328 mg

  • Flaxseeds 297 mg

  • Caviar (fish roe) 293 mg

  • Shrimp/prawns 291 mg

  • Rabbit (wild) 288 mg

  • Cashew nuts 287 mg

  • Tuna (tinned) 286 mg

  • Lobster 285 mg

  • Cocoa beans 283 mg

  • Pistachio nuts 273 mg

  • Mussels 267 mg

  • Peas 266 mg

  • Mackerel (tinned) 260 mg

  • Cod 257 mg

  • Black beans 256 mg

  • Crab 255 mg

  • Salmon (Atlantic farmed) 249 mg

  • Soya beans 242 mg

  • Peanuts 231 mg

  • Pork 220 mg

  • Almonds 214 mg

  • Wheat 212 mg

  • Turkey 194 mg

  • Venison 192 mg

  • Squid 174 mg

  • Walnuts 170 mg

  • Quinoa and eggs 167 mg

  • Rye 154 mg

  • Beef (lean mince) 148 mg

  • Brazil nuts 141 mg

  • Pine nuts 107 mg

  • Black beans 105 mg

  • Oats 102 mg

  • Brown rice 101 mg

  • Spinach 100 mg

  • Cow’s milk 46 mg

  • Goat’s milk 44 mg

NOTE: An average build adult human between 19 and 50 years old requires approximately five milligrams of tryptophan per day per kilogram of body weight. Older people require more. See  the Daily requirements of amino acids.

Stress, infection and drugs tend to diminish neurotransmitter levels, as does impaired digestion and circulation. Tryptophan is an essential amino acid which must be consumed in the diet as the body cannot make it whereas tyrosine can be manufacture by the body from another of the essential amino acids phenylalanine.

Highest sources of phenylalanine in milligrams per 100 grams

  • Chlorella (dried) and spirulina (dried) 2777 mg

  • Whelks 1648 mg

  • Pumpkin and squash seeds 1642 mg

  • Peanuts 1427 mg

  • Lamb’s liver 1385 mg

  • Cheddar cheese 1311 mg

  • Almonds 1185 mg

  • Sunflower seeds 1169 mg

  • Black beans 1168 mg

  • Calf’s liver 1140 mg

  • Caviar (fish roe) 1092 mg

  • Beef (lean mince) 1028 mg

  • Almonds 1120 mg

  • Tuna fish (tinned) 996 mg

  • Quail 980 mg

  • Flaxseeds 957 mg

  • Pheasant 951 mg

  • Sesame seeds 940 mg

  • Turkey 935 mg

  • Mackerel (tinned) 905 mg

  • Cod 896 mg

  • Shrimp/prawns 883 mg

  • Lobster 866 mg

  • Salmon (farmed) 863 mg

  • Mussels 853 mg

  • Venison 818 mg

  • Crab 773 mg

  • Walnuts 711 mg

  • Eggs 681 mg

  • Rye 674 mg

  • Chicken 665 mg

  • Wheat 656 mg

  • Brazil nuts 630 mg

  • Quinoa 593 mg

  • Soya beans 559 mg

  • Squid 558 mg

  • Pine nuts 524 mg

  • Brown rice 410 mg

Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) is necessary for the conversion of tryptophan to both vitamin B3 (niacin) and serotonin. Consequently, a dietary deficiency of vitamin B6 may result in low serotonin levels and/or impaired conversion of tryptophan to niacin.

Highest sources of vitamin B6 in milligrams per 100 grams

  • Rice bran 4.07 mg

  • Sage 2.69 mg

  • Brewer’s yeast 1.50 mg

  • Sunflower seeds 1.35 mg

  • Wheat germ 1.30 mg

  • Garlic 1.24mg

  • Pistachio nuts 1.12 mg

  • Tuna fish 1.04 mg

  • Beef or calf’s liver 1.03 mg

  • Shiitake mushrooms 0.97 mg

  • Salmon 0.94 mg

  • Turkey 0.81 mg

  • Venison 0.76 mg

NOTE: Wild salmon (0.94 mg) contains far more vitamin B6 than farmed salmon (0.56 mg) and fresh salmon and tuna are far richer in vitamin B6 than tinned.

Norepinephrine, also called noradrenalin, is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter needed for motivation, alertness and concentration. Like a hormone, it travels in the bloodstream to arouse brain activity with its adrenalin-like effects. The brain requires norepinephrine to form new memories and to transfer them to long-term storage. This neurotransmitter also influences the metabolic rate.

Both norepinephrine and dopamine are manufactured from the non-essential amino acids tyrosine in the presence of adequate oxygen, vitamins B3, vitamin B6, vitamin  B9 and vitamin C, iron and copper.
Tyrosine is synthesised in the body from the essential amino acid phenylalanine. The human body also manufactures coenzymeQ10 from amino acids, tyrosine and phenylalanine. Dopamine is easy to oxidise and nutrients with antioxidant properties, such as vitamin C, vitamin E and carotenoids, can reduce free radical damage to the brain cells that produce dopamine.

For natural food sources of these nutrients see:

Levodopa is produced in the human body via biosynthesis from the amino acid tyrosine. Levodopa, also called L-dopa, is converted to the neurotransmitters epinephrine (adrenaline), dopamine and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) by the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase in the brain. Levodopa, phenylalanine and tyrosine are precursors to the biological pigment melanin.

Broad beans are a natural source of leva-dopa which has shown to be helpful in treating patients with Parkinson's disease and can be incorporated into dietary strategies to manage Parkinsonian motor oscillations. Leva-dopa can help to correct the underlying deficiency of endogenous dopamine release in the striatum. However, there are many adverse side effects from taking leva-dopa on its own.

Side effects of taking leva-dopa

  • Blocked nose, sneezing, cough and/or other cold symptoms

  • Blurred vision

  • Diarrhoea and constipation (alternating)

  • Dizziness

  • Drowsiness

  • Dry mouth

  • Headache

  • Heartburn

  • Itching

  • Loss of appetite

  • Muscle pain

  • Nausea and vomiting

  • Numbness or tingling

  • Skin rash

  • Sleep problems (insomnia) and strange dreams

If any of the following symptoms arise it is important to see a health professional.

  • Greatly increased eye blinking/twitching.

  • Fainting.

  • Mental/mood changes such as confusion, depression, hallucinations and/or thoughts of suicide.

  • Unusual strong urges such as increased gambling, increased sexual urges etc.

  • Worsening of involuntary movements and spasms.

Natural sources of leva-dopa

  • Broad beans

  • Chinese cinnamon (cassia bark)

  • Velvet beans.

Natural foods that can increase dopamine levels

  • Almonds

  • Avocados

  • Bananas

  • Broad beans

  • Butter beans

  • Cheese

  • Eggs

  • Milk

  • Pumpkin seeds

  • Sesame seeds

Failure of cell mitochondrial function

 

Every cell in the body has a little 'biological spark-plug', called mitochondria. These mitochondria are responsible for enabling the cell to process oxygen properly and to supply energy for all biological-chemical processes. Supplying specific enzymes that will restore mitochondrial function has proved effective in reducing the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Foods rich in carnitine and vitamin B1 (thiamine) can assist with restoring cell mitochondrial function.

Natural sources of carnitine in alphabetical order

  • Beef

  • Cheese

  • Milk

  • Oily fish

  • Pork

  • Poultry and game birds

  • Rabbit

  • Shellfish

  • Venison

Highest sources of vitamin B1 in milligrams per 100 grams

  • Yeast extract 23.38 mg

  • Brewer’s yeast 11 mg (dependent upon source check label)

  • Rice bran 2.75 mg

  • Wheat germ 1.88 mg

  • Sesame seeds 1.21 mg

  • Sunflower seeds 1.48 mg

  • Coriander leaves 1.25 mg

  • Pine nuts 1.24 mg

  • Peanuts 0.44 mg

  • Shiitake mushrooms 0.3 mg

  • Okra 0.2 mg

  • Globe artichoke 0.20 mg

  • Beetroot greens 0.12 mg

  • Sprouted beans 0.39 mg

  • Spinach 0.10 mg

Coenzyme Q10 and vitamin B12 deficiency

 

The mitochondria in the brain and heart also require good levels of coenzyme Q10 and vitamin B12 and both are often lacking in older people and many medications such as beta-blockers, diuretics, Metformin (to lower blood sugar) and cholesterol lowering drugs, such as Statins, cause a deficiency of these vital substances. Beta-adrenergic blockers deplete coenzyme Q10 by interfering with the production of this essential enzyme for energy production. Since the brain is particularly rich in coenzyme Q10-hungry mitochondria, the energy factory of the cell, the end result can be brain damage and Parkinson's disease. Drug-induced Parkisonism is discussed further on.

 

Under 30 years old, the human body makes about 500 mg of coenzyme Q10 daily. This is needed to maintain the general body pool of about 2000 mg. By age 65, most people have 50-60% less coenzyme Q10 in their body, the decline of which may be among the myriad of factors contributing to the aging process. 

The human body manufactures coenzyme Q10 from the two amino acids tyrosine and phenylalanine. Proper functioning of this process depends upon adequate amounts of all the precursors being present and the conversion processes to be working correctly. These amino acids begin to transform to coenzyme Q10 in the presence of the pyridoxal-5-phosphate form of vitamin B6 (pyridoxine). The vitamins B2, B3, B5, B9, vitamin C, selenium and several trace mineral elements must also be present. An additional 10 mg of coenzyme Q10 is gained from a healthy diet which includes the foods below.

Two types of coenzyme Q10 are ubiquinol and ubiquinone. Ubiquinone is the oxidised state of the coenzyme, while ubiquinol is the fully reduced form. The advantage of ubiquinol over ubiquinone is that it will also neutralise free radicals, including those of lipid peroxides that can damage cells and tissues. This occurs because it provides electrons that free radicals are missing and hence neutralising those molecules before they damage the body's cells and tissues. Studies have found that ubiquinol plus creatine can significantly reduce symptoms of Parkinson's disease.

Highest sources of coenzyme Q10 in micrograms per 100 grams

 

  • Venison 158 g

  • Beef heart 113 g

  • Soybean oil 92 g

  • Rapeseed oil 65 g

  • Sardines 64 g

  • Mackerel 43 g

  • Pork 24 - 41 g

  • Beef liver 39 g

  • Beef 31 – 37 g

  • Sesame oil 32 g

  • Soybeans 30 g

  • Peanuts 27 g

  • Cuttlefish 24 g

  • Sesame seeds 23 g

  • Chicken 14 - 21 g

  • Mackerel 21 g

  • Pistachios 20 g

  • Walnuts 19 g

  • Soybeans (dried) 19 g

  • Adzuki beans, hazelnuts 17 g

  • Tuna fish (tinned), herring 16 g

  • Pollack, almonds 14 g

  • Eel 11 g

  • Spinach 10 g

  • Perilla leaves 10 g

  • Broccoli, rainbow trout 9 g

  • Chestnuts 6 g

  • Rice bran 6 g

  • Sunflower oil, olive oil, safflower oil, sweet potato, wheat germ 4 g

  • Garlic, peas, radish leaves,  3 g

  • Aubergine, beans, bell peppers, blackcurrants, cabbage, carrots, cauliflower, cheese, eggs, yoghurt 2 g

  • Apples, buckwheat, Chinese cabbage, millet, onions, oranges, radish roots, strawberries 1 g

NOTE: CoQ10 is fat-soluble and will only be absorbed if consumed at the same time as some fat-rich foods such as avocado, fish or coconut, olive, nut, seed and other cold-pressed oils.

Highest sources of vitamin B12 in micrograms per 100 grams

  • Clams 98.9 μg

  • Liver 83.1 μg

  • Barley grass juice 80 μg

  • Nori seaweed 63.6 μg

  • Octopus 36 μg

  • Caviar/fish eggs 20.0 μg

  • Ashitaba powder 17.0 μg

  • Herring 13.7 μg

  • Tuna fish 10.9 μg

  • Crab 10.4 μg

  • Mackerel 8.7 μg

  • Lean grass fed beef 8.2 μg

  • Duck eggs, goose eggs, rabbit 6 μg

  • Crayfish, pork heart, rainbow trout 5 μg

  • Shiitake mushrooms 4.8 μg

  • Lobster 4 μg

  • Lamb, venison 3.7 μg

  • Swiss Cheese 3.3 μg

  • Salmon 3.2 μg

  • Whey powder 2.37 μg

  • Golden chanterelle mushrooms 2 μg

  • Tuna 1.9 μg

  • Halibut 1.2 μg

  • Chicken egg 1.1 μg

  • Chicken, turkey 1.0 μg

  • Ashitaba 0.4 μg

Fungi, plants and animals are incapable of producing vitamin B12. Only bacteria and archaea have the enzymes required for its synthesis, although many foods are a natural source of B12 because of bacterial symbiosis. The intestinal flora in the human body manufactures vitamin B12 and it is stored it in the liver and secreted in the bile as a coenzyme. Re-absorption takes place in the body and, as long as there are no digestive/absorption issues or liver disorders and the intestinal bacteria have not been compromised, both meat eaters and vegetarians will gain enough from a balanced and varied diet which includes raw organically grown vegetables and seeds and nuts which contain vitamin B12 from microbial action in the soil. Root vegetable with stained spots due to contact to soil are a good supply of vitamin B12, however, once they are peeled or scrubbed they will no longer contain any vitamin B12. Barley grass is one very good plant source of vitamin B12.

NOTE: One μg is one microgram.

Heavy metals

 

Heavy metals can get into the body by many different ways, but primarily by:  

  • Air-pollution (lead and many others)

  • Cooking utensils (aluminium with fluoridated water, iron pots)

  • Dental amalgam (mercury)

  • Vaccinations (mercury)

  • The foods and drinks consumed especially deep sea ocean fish (mercury, aluminium, etc.)

  • Combinations of the above

There are many types of foods that should be consumed regularly to protect against and treat heavy metal contamination. Deep sea ocean fish have been found to be contaminated with mercury. Farmed fish, such as salmon, is usually far less contaminated than wild deep sea fish. Oily fish is nutritionally important in the diet and should not be avoided due to mercury contamination. Rather, add foods that can protect against this and detoxify the body. Pollution can add to the toxic build up of metals in the human body but this can be treated very easily through a cleansing diet.

The main purpose of sulphur is to dissolve waste materials. It helps to eject some of the waste and poisons like heavy metals from the system which can help treat Parkinson's disease.

Highest sources of sulphur in milligrams per 100 grams

  • Scallops 520 mg

  • Lobster 510 mg

  • Crab 470 mg

  • Prawns 370 mg

  • Mussels 350 mg

  • Haddock 290 mg

  • Brazil nuts 290 mg

  • Peanuts 260 mg

  • Cod 250 mg

  • Oysters 250 mg

  • Chicken livers 250 mg

  • Cheese (parmesan) 250 mg

  • Caviar (fish roe) 240 mg

  • Peaches (dried) 240 mg

  • Cheese (cheddar or stilton) 230 mg

  • Salmon 220 mg

  • Beef 220 mg

  • Eggs 200 mg

  • Apricots (dried) 160 mg

  • Almonds 150 mg

  • Rabbit 130 mg

  • Walnuts 100 mg

  • Peppercorns 100 mg

  • Cabbage 90 mg

  • Spinach 90 mg

  • Brussel sprouts 80 mg

  • Chickpeas 80 mg

  • Figs (dried) 80 mg

  • Coconut 80 mg

  • Hazel nuts 80 mg

  • Mung beans 60 mg

  • Dates 50 mg

  • Split peas 50 mg

  • Onions 50 mg

  • Leeks 50 mg

  • Radishes 40 mg

See Heavy metals for more information about how to avoid and eliminate heavy metals from the body.

 

Imbalance of the intestinal flora

 

The correct balance of the gut bacteria is vital to life and health. Many factors can upset this fragile intestinal flora such as drugs, especially antibiotics, stress,  toxins and excessive amounts of sugar and protein. Once the this equilibrium is upset many health issues can develop including Parkinson's disease.

Prebiotic foods

Prebiotic foods, containing carbohydrates such as as inulin, encourages a healthy intestinal environment to benefit probiotic intestinal flora. Prebiotic is a fairly recently coined name to refer to food components such as oligosaccharides, resistant starch and fermentable fibre that feed certain kinds of bacteria in the colon (large intestine) that have an important influence on the rest of the body. The human digestive system has a hard time breaking down many of these carbohydrates. Almost 90% escapes digestion in the small intestine and reaches the colon where it performs a different function; that of a prebiotic.

The bacteria that feed on fermentable carbohydrate produce many beneficial substances, including short-chain fatty acids, vitamin A, vitamin K2 and certain B vitamins. They also promote further absorption of some minerals that have escaped the small intestine, including calcium and magnesium and vitamin K2 which is vital to direct calcium to the bones and is needed in conjunction with vitamin D. This is why it is very important to consume both prebiotic and probiotic foods throughout life and especially when suffering from any kind of infections or health disorders.

Prebiotic foods that feed the existing beneficial bacteria

  • Agave

  • Apples

  • Asparagus

  • Banana

  • Beans

  • Bran

  • Broccoli

  • Burdock root

  • Cabbage

  • Cauliflower

  • Celeriac

  • Chicory root

  • Cocoa (raw)

  • Coconut flesh

  • Dandelion root

  • Elecampane

  • Elephant foot yam

  • Garlic

  • Jerusalem artichoke

  • Jicama root
  • Kale
  • Leeks
  • Lentils
  • Mashua
  • Mugwort
  • Oats
  • Onions
  • Parsnips
  • Peas
  • Radish
  • Rampion
  • Salsify
  • Turnip
  • Swede
  • Sweet potato
  • Whole grains
  • Yacon root
  • Yams

Probiotic foods

Probiotic foods contain beneficial bacteria and come from the fermentation process that the food has been allowed to undergo. During and after any treatment with antibiotics, it is advisable to include more probiotic foods in the daily diet to replenish the friendly bacteria that are wiped out by antibiotics. It is advisable to consume probiotics at least an hour before other foods to enable enough beneficial bacteria to survive and pass through the strong stomach acids.

Probiotic foods that contain beneficial bacteria

  • Brine pickles (eggs, fruit, nuts, seeds and vegetables that have been fermented by lactic acid bacteria)

  • Kefir (fermented milk drink)

  • Kimchi (a fermented, spicy Korean side dish)

  • Kombucha (fermented black or green Asian tea)

  • Miso (a Japanese fermented seasoning made with soya beans, salt and a type of fungus called koji)

  • Sauerkraut (finely shredded cabbage that has been fermented by lactic acid bacteria)

  • Tempeh (fermented soya beans)

  • Yoghurt (plain with live cultures)

Manganese toxicity

 

Excessive levels of manganese can be harmful and lead to symptoms similar to Parkinson's disease. See what foods to cut down on to reduce levels of Manganese.

 

Medications that can cause drug induced Parkinsonism

 

Unfortunately, there are many commonly prescribed medications and recreational drugs which can cause drug-induced Parkinsonism which has all the same symptoms as Parkinson's disease. Rather than take more medications for the Parkinson's symptoms, these drugs should be investigated and changed or eliminated wherever possible. Any drug that blocks the action of dopamine (referred to as a dopamine antagonist) is likely to cause Parkinsonism.

 

Drugs such as statins like  Lipitor, Atorvastatin or drugs for lowering blood sugar such as Metformin that reduce the levels of coenzyme Q10 can cause Parkinsonism as this nutrient is vital for the cell mitochondria function of the brain as mentioned above. See Coenzyme Q10 deficiency above.

 

Recreational drugs especially 'legal highs' are often made with synthetic chemicals like desmethylprodine MPPP and MPTP. A breakdown product of these chemicals is capable of producing severe and permanent damage to the dopamine-containing cells in the basal ganglia of the brain which causes permanent Parkinsonism. Regular use of cocaine can also cause the development of Parkinson's disease.

Drugs that can cause Parkinsonism

  • Aldomet (high blood pressure)

  • Amisulpride (neuroleptic)

  • Amiodarone (heart conditions)

  • Amisulpiride (schizophrenia and bipolar disorders)

  • Antipsychotics (neurological disorders)

  • Aripiprazole (schizophrenia)

  • Bumetande (diuretic)

  • Butyrophenones (neurological disorders)

  • Calcium channel blockers (high blood pressure, abnormal heart rhythm, angina pectoris, panic attacks, manic depression, migraine)

  • Camcolit (depression)

  • Cinnarizine (nausea and vomiting, motion sickness, vertigo, dizziness, tinnitus, vascular disease and Raynaud’s syndrome, high blood pressure, abnormal heart rhythm, angina pectoris, panic attacks, manic depression and migraine)

  • Clopidegrol (blood thinner)

  • Clopixol (neuroleptic)

  • Chloractil (neuroleptic)

  • Chlorpromazine hydrocloride (neuroleptic)

  • Clozaril (neuroleptic)

  • Clozapine (neurological disorders)

  • Cocaine (recreational drug)

  • Cordarone X (heart problems)

  • Denzapine (neuroleptic)

  • Depixol (neuroleptic)

  • Desmethylprodine MPPP (recreational drug)

  • Domatil (neuroleptic)

  • Escitalopram (antidepressant)

  • Ezetimibe (statin - cholesterol lowering)

  • Fentazin (neuroleptic)

  • Fluphenazine (depression)

  • Haloperidol (neurological disorders)

  • Largactil  (neuroleptic)

  • Levomepromazine  (neuroleptic)

  • Li-Liquid (depression)

  • Liskonum (depression)

  • Lithium (depression)

  • Maxolon (sickness and indigestion)

  • Melleril (neuroleptic)

  • Methotrimeprazine (neuroleptic)

  • Methyldopa (high blood pressure)

  • Metoclopramide (nausea and vomiting)

  • Migramax (migraine)

  • Modecate (neuroleptic)

  • Moditen (neuroleptic)

  • Motipress  (depression)

  • Motival (neuroleptic)

  • Neulactil (neuroleptic)

  • Neuroleptics  (neurological disorders)

  • Nortriptyline (neuroleptic)

  • Nozinan (neuroleptic)

  • Olanzapine (neurological disorders)

  • Omeprazole (antacid)

  • Orap (neuroleptic)

  • Oxypertine (neuroleptic)

  • Parnate (depression)

  • Paramax (migraine)

  • Pericyazine (neuroleptic)

  • Perphenazine (neuroleptic)

  • Phenothiazine (antipsychotic and antihistaminic)

  • Pimozide  (neuroleptic)

  • Piportil  (neuroleptic)

  • Pipotiazine  (neuroleptic)

  • Priadel (depression)

  • Prochlorperazine (nausea and dizziness)

  • Promazine hydrochloride (neuroleptic)

  • Prozac (depression)

  • Quetiapine  (neurological disorders)

  • Reserpine (high blood pressure and mental agitation)

  • Risperidone (neurological disorders)

  • Risperdal (neuroleptic)

  • Seroquel (neuroleptic)

  • Sodium valproate (epilepsy)

  • Solian (neuroleptic)

  • Stelazine (neuroleptic)

  • Stemetil (neuroleptic)

  • Stugeron  (nausea and vomiting, motion sickness, vertigo, dizziness, tinnitus, vascular disease and Raynaud’s syndrome, high blood pressure, abnormal heart rhythm, angina pectoris, panic attacks, manic depression and migraine)

  • Sulpiride (neurological disorders)

  • Sulpitil (neuroleptic)

  • Sulpor (neuroleptic)

  • Tamsulosin (for prostate enlargement)

  • Tetrabenazine (involuntary movement disorders, Huntington disease)

  • Thioridazine (neuroleptic)

  • Tranylcypromine (depression)

  • Trifluoperazine (nausea and vomiting, anxiety, schizophrenia, psychosis)

  • Triptafen (neuroleptic)

  • Zoleptil (neuroleptic)

  • Zotepine (schizophrenia)

  • Zuclopenthixol acetate (neuroleptic)

  • Zyprexa (neuroleptic)

 

NOTE: If the Parkinson’s condition is caused by a medication, the doctor should investigate by a process of elimination then change or stop the medicine(s) responsible. However, the benefits of the medication should be weighed against the severity of symptoms but if they are not vital for life they should be eliminated and natural therapies which do no harm should be used to treat these conditions  instead.

Nutrients essential for treating and preventing Parkinson's disease

Alpha lipoic acid

Alpha-lipoic acid is an antioxidant that helps the body turn glucose into energy. Adding to its potency as an antioxidant is its ability to rehabilitate other antioxidants such as glutathione, vitamin C and vitamin E. Most other antioxidants at work in the body tend to wear themselves out and dissipate, but alpha-lipoic acid can rehabilitate these free radical-fighting substances and get them working again. It also has a protective effect in the brain and nerve tissues. Alpha-lipoic acid works as an antioxidant in both water and fatty tissue, enabling it to enter all parts of the nerve cell and protect it from the damage.

Natural sources of alpha-lipoic acid

  • Brewers yeast

  • Broccoli

  • Brussel sprouts

  • Flaxseeds

  • Organ meats

  • Peas

  • Rice bran

  • Spinach

  • Swiss chard

  • Tomatoes

  • Watercress

Aspartate and aspartic acid

The carboxylate anion and salts of aspartic acid are known as aspartate which is essentially a neurotransmitter and a stimulant, as well as a precursor to another neurotransmitter and stimulant (N-methyl-D-aspartate). It works in a central brain region to cause a release of hormones and may help with those suffering from Parkinson's disease.

Aspartic acid is one of two acidic amino acids and, along with glutamic acid, plays important roles as general acids in enzyme active centres, as well as in maintaining the solubility and ionic character of proteins. Aspartic acid is a non-essential amino acid, meaning that the body can usually make sufficient amounts of it. Aspartic acid is essential to the process of chelating (binding to) minerals to make them easier to assimilate, digest and utilise, as in calcium, potassium and magnesium. Found in its highest quantities in the brain, aspartic acid increases neurological activity.

Natural sources of aspartate and aspartic acid in alphabetical order

  • Apples

  • Apricots

  • Bamboo shoots

  • Beef

  • Buckwheat

  • Chlorella

  • Cod

  • Egg white

  • Lamb

  • Nuts

  • Oily fish

  • Organ meats

  • Pine nuts

  • Seaweed

  • Sesame seeds

  • Shellfish

  • Soya beans

  • Sunflower seeds

  • Parsley

  • Peanuts

  • Rabbit

  • Spirulina

  • Venison

Astaxanthin

Astaxanthin is a  omega-3 fatty acid and one of the most powerful antioxidants known to man. It gives the red and pink colour to fresh water and ocean fish and provides a protective and anti-inflammatory affect especially in the brain and so can can help to prevent and treat Parkinson's disease..

Natural sources of astaxanthin

Pink and red coloured fresh water and seafood such as crab, crayfish, lobster, prawns, red sea bream, red trout, salmon, salmon roe (eggs) and shrimp.

The highest concentration of this powerful antioxidant is found in a type of algae (Haematococcus microalgae) and red krill oil. It is recommended that 1000 mg of krill oil should be consumed daily by those with Parkinson's disease and those that wish to prevent it.

Beta-sitosterol

Beta-sitosterol is one of many phytosterols with a chemical structure similar to that of cholesterol. It can help stimulate the immune system, relieve pain, reduce inflammation and thus is a useful nutrient for those suffering from Parkinson's disease.

  • Almonds

  • Amaranth

  • Avocado

  • Chocolate (dark over 70% cocoa)

  • Hazelnuts

  • Macadamia nuts

  • Pecans

  • Pistachios

  • Pumpkin seeds

  • Saw palmetto berries

  • Squash seeds

  • Walnuts

  • Winged beans

Butyric acid

Butyric acid massively increases the function of mitochondria, the tiny power plants of every cell and so can be a useful treatment for Parkinson's disease. The bacteria in the intestines makes butyric acid naturally when fed high-fibre foods such as beans, coconut, fruit (with skins), leafy vegetables, nuts, psyllium husks, sweet potatoes and other root vegetables and properly prepared whole grains. Brewer's yeast and butter contain butyric acid. Because the imbalance of the intestinal bacteria has now been associated with Parkinson's disease it may well be that a lack of butyric acid is connected.

Chalcones

Chalcones are often responsible for the yellow pigment of many types of flowers such as daisies and sunflowers. They are a class of flavonoid compounds which are potent antioxidants, protecting cells from free radical damage, which is associated with accelerating the ageing process and with many disorders including Parkinson's disease.

Natural sources of chalcones

  • Apples

  • Ashitaba

  • Astragalus

  • Beans

  • Cinnamon

  • Citrus fruit (skins)

  • Cloves

  • Green tea

  • Hops

  • Liquorice root

  • Peas

  • Potatoes

  • Sunflower seeds

  • Tomato skins

Chlorophyll

Because the chlorophyll molecule is almost identical to the haemoglobin molecule in red blood cells it is often referred to as 'nature's blood'. One of its many attributes includes its ability to stimulate the production of red blood cells, which carry oxygen to the body's tissues. It is also an excellent agent for cleansing the blood, bowels and liver and promotes the growth of beneficial intestinal bacteria. It can also bind with heavy metals and remove them from the body and strengthens immunity. It also has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, alkalises the blood and helps to prevent and fight diseases like Parkinson's.

All green leafy herbs and vegetables especially the following:

Creatine

Creatine provides neuro-protection of the degenerative diseases amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, also known as Lou Gehrig's disease, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease and traumatic brain injury by preventing the depletion of adenosine triphosphate, (ATP) in the brain. Creatine is twice as effective as the prescription drug riluzole in extending lives. About half of the supply of creatine is made within the body by the liver, pancreas and kidneys. Using a combination of essential and non-essential amino acids, including arginine, glycine and methionine, the kidneys manufacture a precursor, guandino-acetic acid, and sends it to the liver, which converts it to creatine. The creatine is then transported to the muscles through the bloodstream.

Natural sources of creatine

  • Beef

  • Lamb

  • Oily fish

  • Organ meats (except poultry)

  • Pork

  • Rabbit

  • Venison

  • Wild game birds

Delphinidin

Delphinidin is an anthocyanin with powerful antioxidant abilities that can slow down age-related motor changes, such as those seen in Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. It prevents the oxidisation of certain compounds and fight attacks on the body from harmful chemicals.

Natural sources of delphinidin

  • Aubergine (skin)

  • Blueberries

  • Chokeberries

  • Maqui berry

  • Winged beans

Glutamine and glutamic acid

 

The amino acids, glutamine and glutamic acid, are closely related in a chemical sense. The human body is able to produce glutamine from glutamic acid through the glutamate ammonium ligase. Glutamine is the amino acid with the highest concentration in blood plasma, musculature and cerebral and spinal fluid. Glutamine aids in T-cell formation and thus strengthens the immune system. It has been recognised for muscle preservation, intestinal health and can help to increase mental prowess and energy and assists in brain capacity and memory function. Glutamine also protects the liver and the lining of the intestines. Gastrointestinal damage and stomach ulcers caused by the Helicobacter pylori can be addressed with this amino acid. The body requires both glutamine and glutamic acid to function correctly and, therefore, consuming unprocessed foods rich in both these amino acids on a daily basis is necessary.

Natural sources of glutamine

Natural sources of glutamic acid

Malic acid

Malic acid is an acid found naturally in foods, especially unripe fruits. It was first isolated from fruit juice, and one of the best sources of this naturally-occurring acid is apples. It is malic acid that gives green apples their tart taste. Malic acid is also found in a number of other fruits and vegetables and has the ability to bind to heavy metals and remove them from the body and can therefore be helpful in the treatment and prevention of Parkinson's disease.

Natural sources of malic acid

  • Apples (green)

  • Apricots

  • Berries

  • Corn silk

  • Grapes (green)

  • Pineapple

Malvidin

Malvidin and its glycosides are responsible for the red to blue colour of many food items and for the colour of primroses and are known as anthocyanins. It is a powerful antioxidant that can slow down age-related motor changes, such as those seen in Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease because it prevents the oxidisation of certain compounds and fight attacks on the body from harmful chemicals.

Natural sources of malvidin

Magnesium

 

Magnesium is an important nutrient for the brain and it raises the resistance against stress, depressions, tensions and helps against mental tiredness. It also strengthens the memory and concentration. Magnesium is involved in releasing energy from the diet and is involved in a good functioning nervous system and muscles and is therefore vital to help prevent Parkinson's disease. It is also involved in the formation of strong bones and teeth and is active as an assistant cofactor of the B and C vitamins. It is necessary for many body functions, such as energy production and cell division and is essential for the transfer of nerve impulses.

 

Modern farming methods leach many minerals from the soil including magnesium and, currently, it is not replaced so today’s food contains less magnesium than it did 50 years ago. Unless this problem is addressed and farming methods altered, the magnesium content of food will continue to deplete. Going organic is one way of counter-balancing this problem.

 

Organic food contains far more vitamins and minerals than non organic produce. For instance, organic tomatoes contain 23 mg of magnesium, where as an equal quantity of non-organic tomatoes contains just 4.5 mg. Organic spinach contains 96 mg, but an equal quantity of non-organic spinach contains only 47.5 mg. Magnesium is instrumental in digesting protein and converting it into energy. However, protein portions in the West tend to be excessive so as a result, the body uses up its magnesium reserves digesting the extra. As a general guide, the protein portion of each meal should never be larger than the clenched fist of the person eating it.

Highest sources of magnesium in micrograms per 100 grams

  • Rice bran 781 mg

  • Basil, coriander, dill and sage 694 mg

  • Hemp seeds 640 mg

  • Pumpkin and squash seeds 535 mg

  • Raw cocoa 499 mg

  • Flaxseeds 392 mg

  • Brazil nuts 376 mg

  • Sesame seeds 353 mg

  • Sunflower seeds 346 mg

  • Chia seeds 335 mg

  • Chlorella 315 mg

  • Wheat germ 313 mg

  • Cashew nuts 292 mg

  • Almonds 268 mg

  • Caraway seeds 258 mg

  • Black strap molasses and dulse 242 mg

  • Buckwheat 231 mg

  • Spirulina 189 mg

  • Oats 177 mg

  • Durum wheat 144 mg

  • Macadamia nuts 130 mg

  • Adzuki beans 127 mg

  • Kelp 121 mg

  • Millet 114 mg

  • Kale 88 mg

  • Amaranth 65 mg

  • Globe artichoke 60 mg

  • Okra and nettles 57 mg

  • Chestnuts 54 mg

  • Rocket 47 mg

  • Dates 43 mg

  • Plantain 37 mg

  • Lentils 36 mg

  • Butternut squash 34 mg

  • Coconut 32 mg

  • Potatoes with skin 30 mg

  • Passion fruit 29 mg

  • Savoy cabbage, halibut 28 mg

  • Bananas, rabbit 27 mg

  • Bread fruit, green beans 25 mg

  • Peas 24 mg

  • Raspberries 22 mg

  • Guava 22 mg

  • Blackberries 20 mg

  • Courgettes 18 mg

  • Kiwi fruit, fennel, figs 17 mg

  • Endive 15 mg

  • Cucumber, lettuce 13 mg

NOTE: To gain more magnesium from foods some need to be soaked overnight to reduce phytic acid content such as seeds, nuts, dried beans and whole grains.

 

The recommended dietary requirements for magnesium are around 350 mg per day for adult man and 300 mg for women.

 

Methionine

 

Methionine has anti-inflammatory effects which can treat osteoarthritis and can reduce lymph rigidity and the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. It is one of the essential amino acids needed for good health but cannot be produced in the body and so must be provided through the diet. One of the important functions of methionine is its ability to be a supplier of sulphur and other compounds required by the body for normal metabolism and growth. Sulphur is a key element and vital to life and, without an adequate intake, the body will not be able to make and utilise a number of antioxidant nutrients.

Highest sources of methionine in milligrams per 100 grams

  • Sesame seeds 1331 mg

  • Chlorella (dried) 1300 mg

  • Whelks 1205 mg

  • Spirulina (dried) 1149 mg

  • Sunflower seeds 1033 mg

  • Brazil nuts 1008 mg

  • Chicken 859 mg

  • Tuna fish (tinned) 755 mg

  • Calf’s liver, Pumpkin seeds and squash seeds 740 mg

  • Quail 716 mg

  • Pheasant 710 mg

  • Beef (lean mince) 694 mg

  • Mackerel  (tinned) 686 mg

  • Cod 679 mg

  • Lamb’s liver 664 mg

  • Salmon (Atlantic farmed) 654 mg

  • Cheddar cheese 652 mg

  • Shrimp/prawns 589 mg

  • Lobster 577 mg

  • Caviar (fish roe) 553 mg

  • Rabbit 545 mg

  • Mussels 537 mg

  • Crab 515 mg

  • Venison 505 mg

  • Turkey 495 mg

  • Sunflower seeds 494 mg

  • Eggs 380 mg

  • Flaxseeds 370 mg

  • Squid 351 mg

  • Quinoa 309 mg

  • Peanuts 291 mg

  • Pine nuts 259 mg

  • Rye 248 mg

  • Walnuts 236 mg

  • Soya beans 224 mg

  • Wheat 212 mg

  • Brown rice 179 mg

  • Almonds 151 mg

Nasunin

Nasunin is a potent antioxidant and free radical scavenger that has been shown to protect cell membranes from damage. Nasunin has been found to protect the lipids (fats) in brain cell membranes. Cell membranes are almost entirely composed of lipids and are responsible for protecting the cell from free radicals, letting nutrients in and wastes out and receiving instructions from messenger molecules that tell the cell which activities it should perform. Its free radical fighting properties are particularly important for the health of brain tissue and are therefore helpful when treating or trying to prevent Parkinson's disese..

Natural sources of nasunin

  • Aubergine (skin)

  • Beetroot

  • Cabbage (red)

  • Radishes (purple)

  • Turnips (red)

Omega-3 fatty acids

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) fatty acids are among the most documented in nutrition research. However, a third key fatty acid, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) has recently been shown to play probably the most powerful role in key health outcomes. In the human body they can be synthesised from linolenic acid or obtained directly from food.

Omega-6 fatty acids are pro-inflammatory, while omega-3 fatty acids have an anti-inflammatory effect. Inflammation is essential for survival as it protects the body from infection and injury, but it can also cause severe damage and contribute to disease when the inflammatory response is inappropriate or excessive. Therefore a balanced ratio of omega 6 to omega 3 is required. Most experts agree that the omega 6:3 ratio should range from 1:1 to 5:1 but the optimal ratio may vary with any particular condition or disease under consideration. Today’s diet in the developed world can have a far higher level of omega-6 to omega-3 and may be responsible for the rise in many conditions such as Parkinson's disease.

Highest sources of omega-3 fatty acids in milligrams per 100 grams

  • Krill oil 36000 mg

  • Flaxseed oil 22813 mg

  • Chia seeds 17552 mg

  • Walnuts 9079 mg

  • Caviar (fish eggs) 6789 mg

  • Cloves (ground) 4279 mg

  • Oregano (dried) 4180 mg

  • Marjoram (dried) 3230 mg

  • Tarragon (dried) 2955 mg

  • Mackerel 2670 mg

  • Herring 2365 mg

  • Salmon (wild) 2018 mg

  • Lamb 1610 mg

  • Basil (dried) 1509 mg

  • Sardines 1480 mg

  • Anchovies 1478 mg

  • Soya beans 1433 mg

  • Trout 1068 mg

  • Pecans, sea bass 986 mg

  • Pine nuts 787 mg

  • Bell peppers (green) 770 mg

  • Oysters 740 mg

  • Radish seeds sprouted 722 mg

  • Purslane 400 mg

  • Basil (fresh leaves) 316 mg

  • Rabbit 220 mg

  • Kidney beans 194 mg

  • Wakame seaweed 188 mg

  • Alfalfa sprouts 175 mg

  • Brussel sprouts 173 mg

  • Rocket 170 mg

  • Cauliflower 167 mg

  • Spinach 138 mg

  • Broccoli 129 mg

  • Raspberries 126 mg

  • Lettuce 113 mg

  • Blueberries 94 mg

  • Summer squash 82 mg

  • Strawberries 65 mg

  • Milk 75 mg

  • Eggs 74 mg

  • Chinese cabbage (pak choy) 55 mg

 

Oratic acid

Orotic acid used to be known as a vitamin B13 however it has since been declassed and is no longer considered to be a vitamin. It is produced by the body’s intestinal flora and is used for the metabolism of vitamin B12 and vitamin B9. It also aids the absorption of many vital nutrients especially calcium, lithium, magnesium, potassium and zinc. Oratic acid is required for efficient brain functioning and health of the nervous system and a deficiency of it may lead to premature aging, cell degeneration, liver disorders and Parkinson's disease.

Natural sources of orotic acid

  • Beetroot

  • Brewer's yeast

  • Carrots, cheese, cow's milk, goat's milk,

  • Organ meats (especially calf's liver)

  • Root vegetables

  • Parsnips

  • Turnips

  • Whey

  • Yoghurt

Rubidium

 

The working of the pituitary gland, as well as the salivary and lachrymal glands, is encouraged with the presence of rubidium and it is also necessary for the synthesis of serotonin and ensures presence of enough serotonin in the body which alleviates depression and mental imbalances and can help with the treatment of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease.

Natural sources of rubidium

NOTE: Plant foods must be grown in soils that are not depleted of rubidium therefore organically grown foods and those from the sea and volcanic areas are best sources.

Vitamin A and beta-carotene

 

Vitamin A is thought to increase tissue resistance to penetration by microbes. Vitamin A can be consumed or manufactured from beta-carotene. Eat foods rich in the vitamin A precursor beta-carotene with fatty foods like avocado, coconut oil, fish, nuts and cold-pressed vegetable and seed oils.

Highest sources of pro-formed vitamin A in micrograms per 100 grams

  • Cayenne chilli powder, paprika 49254 g

  • Sweet potato 19218  g

  • Carrots 17033  g

  • Pumpkin 15563  g

  • Kale 14704  g

  • Dried apricots 12669  g

  • Butternut squash 11155  g

  • Dried mint 10579  g

  • Cos or romaine lettuce 8710  g

  • Parsley 8424  g

  • Cress 6917  g

  • Watercress 3191  g

  • Broccoli 2622  g

  • Butter 2499  g

  • Peas 2100  g

  • Apricots 1926  g

  • Tofu 1913  g

  • Carrot juice 1912  g

  • Passion fruit 1272  g

  • Courgettes 1117  g

  • Tomatoes 833  g

NOTE: One g is one microgram.

Highest sources of beta-carotene in micrograms per 100 grams

  • Cayenne chilli pepper and paprika 26162 g

  • Sun dried chilli peppers 14844 g

  • Sweet potatoes 11509 g

  • Kale 8823 g

  • Carrots 8332 g

  • Pumpkin 6940 g

  • Romaine lettuce 5226 g

  • Parsley 5054 g

  • Marjoram 4806 g

  • Sage 4806 g

  • Butternut squash 4570 g

  • Cress 4150 g

  • Coriander 3930 g

  • Basil 3142 g

  • Broccoli 2720 g

  • Chives 2612 g

  • Watercress 1914 g

  • Leeks 1000 g

  • Passion fruit 743 g

  • Courgettes 670 g

  • Mango 640 g

  • Asparagus 604 g

NOTE: One g is one microgram.

Vitamin B Complex

 

Foods rich in all the B vitamins especially vitamin B12 (see above) are vital as they all have a role to play in providing support and nourishment to the brain and nervous system. Find the natural sources of them all here: B vitamins.

 

Vitamins C and E

 

Foods rich in vitamin C and vitamin E help to support the immune system to fight any infection that may be causing Parkinson's symptoms. When consuming foods rich in vitamin E, it is important to consume foods rich in vitamin C at the same time as this has an effect on the levels of minerals in the body such as iron, magnesium and zinc in the body.

Highest sources of vitamin C in milligrams per 100 grams

 

  • Acerola cherries 1677.6 mg

  • Camu camu berries 532 mg

  • Rosehips 426 mg

  • Green chillies 242.5 mg

  • Guavas 228.3 mg

  • Yellow bell peppers 183.5 mg

  • Black currants 181 mg

  • Thyme 160.01 mg

  • Red chillies 143.7 mg

  • Drumstick pods 141 mg

  • Kale 120 mg

  • Jalapeno peppers 118.6 mg

  • Kiwi fruit 105.4 mg

  • Sun dried tomatoes 102 mg

  • Broccoli 89 mg

  • Brussel sprouts 85 mg

  • Cloves, saffron 81 mg

  • Chilli pepper 76 mg

  • Mustard greens 70 mg

  • Cress 69 mg

  • Persimmons fruit 66 mg

  • Swede 62 mg

  • Basil 61 mg

  • Papaya 60 mg

  • Rosemary 61 mg

  • Strawberries 58 mg

  • Chives 58 mg

  • Oranges 53.2 mg

  • Lemons 53 mg

  • Pineapple 48 mg

  • Cauliflower 48 mg

  • Kumquats 43.9 mg

  • Watercress 43 mg

  • Wasabi root 41.9 mg

  • Kidney bean sprouts 38.7 mg

  • Melon 36.7 mg

  • Elderberries 36 mg

  • Breadfruit 29 mg

  • Coriander 27 mg

Highest sources of vitamin E in milligrams per 100 grams

 

  • Wheat germ 149.4 mg

  • Hemp seeds 55 mg

  • Hazelnut oil 47 mg

  • Almond oil 39 mg

  • Sunflower seeds 38.3 mg

  • Chilli powder 38.1 mg

  • Paprika 38 mg

  • Rice bran oil 32 mg

  • Grape seed oil 29 mg

  • Almonds 26.2 mg

  • Oregano 18.3 mg

  • Hazelnuts 17 mg

  • Flaxseed oil 17 mg

  • Peanut oil 16 mg

  • Hazelnuts 15.3 mg

  • Corn oil 15 mg

  • Olive oil 14 mg

  • Soya bean oil 12 mg

  • Pine nuts 9.3 mg

  • Cloves (ground) 9 mg

  • Peanuts 8 mg

  • Celery flakes (dried) 6 mg

  • Spirulina 5 mg

  • Dried apricots 4.3 mg

  • Bell peppers (red), eel, olives and salmon 4 mg

  • Jalapeno peppers 3.6 mg

  • Anchovies 3.3 mg

  • Broccoli, chicken, chilli peppers (sun-dried), cod, crayfish, dandelion greens, egg yolk, duck, goose, pecan nuts, spinach, tomatoes (tinned or pureed) turkey and turnip greens 3 mg

  • Avocado, beef, bilberries, blue berries, butter, chicory greens, cinnamon (ground), crab, halibut, herring (pickled), mackerel, marjoram, mustard greens, pistachio nuts, poppy seeds, sardines, sesame seeds, Swiss chard, trout, tuna, turnips and walnuts 2 mg

  • Fish roe 1.9 mg

  • Asparagus, kiwi fruit and parsnips 1.5 mg

  • Black berries 1.2 mg

  • Chlorella 1.1 mg

NOTE: The recommended daily of vitamin E is 22 IU for adults. One IU is the biological equivalent of 0.3 μg or 0.3 micrograms.

ZINC

Zinc deficiency is often present in those taking medications or consuming excess alcohol.. Zinc is an important mineral for those suffering with Parkinson's disease.

Highest sources of zinc in milligrams per 100 grams

  • Oysters 78.6 mg

  • Chlorella 71 mg

  • Wheat germ 16.7 mg

  • Beef 12.3 mg

  • Calf's liver 11.9 mg

  • Hemp seeds 11.5 mg

  • Pumpkin and squash seeds 10.3 mg

  • Sesame and watermelon seeds 10.2 mg

  • Bamboo shoots, endives and gourds 9 mg

  • Chervil (herb) 8.8 mg

  • Lamb 8.7 mg

  • Venison 8.6 mg

  • Alfalfa seeds (sprouted), amaranth leaves, Crimini mushrooms, Irish moss and tea 8 mg

  • Crab 7.6 mg

  • Lobster 7.3 mg

  • Agave, basil, broccoli, buffalo, elk, emu, oats, ostrich, spinach and turkey 7 mg

  • Cocoa powder 6.8 mg

  • Asparagus, chicken livers, laver seaweed, mushrooms, parsley and rice bran 5.7 mg

  • Cashew nuts 5.6 mg

  • Pork 5.1 mg

  • Jute (herb), lemon grass, mung beans, Portobello mushrooms, radishes and shiitake mushrooms 5 mg

  • Agar seaweed, butterbur, cauliflower, chicory, Chinese cabbage, chives, coriander, green beans, lentils, lettuce, okra, rocket, spring onions, summer squash, Swiss chard, tomatoes and wasabi (yellow) 3.4 mg

  • Peanuts 3.3 mg

  • Cheddar cheese 3.1 mg

  • Mozzarella cheese 2.9 mg

  • Anchovies and rabbit 2.4 mg

  • Cabbage, cucumber, jalapeno peppers, , kidney beans, navy beans, spirulina and turnip greens 2 mg

  • Mussels 1.6 mg

  • Arrowroot, artichokes (globe), beetroot, bell peppers, black eyed peas, borage, broad beans, Brussel sprouts, butter beans, cabbage, carrots, celery, chilli peppers, courgettes, dandelion greens, garlic, horseradish, kale, kelp, mustard greens, peas, pinto beans, potatoes, pumpkin, turnips, Swede, sweet potato, tomatoes (red),  wakame (seaweed), watercress and winged beans 1.2 mg

The recommended dietary allowance of zinc is approximately 15 mg daily for an adult. Do not exceed 100 mg of zinc per day from all sources.

Toxins

Toxicity due to substances such as carbon monoxide, carbon disulfide, drugs such as cocaine and others (see below), food additives, paraquat, pesticides, mercury, hexane, rotenone and toluene as well as inhalant abuse can also cause permanent damage and lead to Parkinson's disease.

To lower toxicity exposure and hlp to reduce the toxic overload avoid alcohol, all refined and processed foods, coffee, drugs, food additives, margarine, sugar, table salt, white flour, white bread, white rice and any premade meals and snacks. Eliminate the use of chemicals in the home and avoid toxin containing cosmetics to help reduce further toxins in the system.

It is very important to eliminate poisonous molecules from the home environment and the body as much as possible therefore see the following pages:

Natural remedies for Parkinson's disease

Foods to add to the diet

  • Algae, such as chlorella and spirulina, contain many important nutrients and minerals often lacking in land-based crops. Take one tablespoon of one of them per day.

  • Alfalfa

  • Almonds (five per day)

  • Aloe vera juice

  • Apple cider vinegar (one tablespoon a day before food)

  • Barley grass is highly nutritious and one of the rare plant foods that provides vitamin B12.

  • Beans and peas should be consumed at least three times a week to help provide the fibre and proteins that body and brain needs.

  • Berries (one serving per day)

  • Brazil nuts (two per day)

  • Broad beans are a natural source of levodopa which has been proven to help with the symptoms o Parkinson's disease as mentioned above

  • Citrus fruits and peel

  • Coconut (flesh, oil and juice)

  • Coriander is a rich sources of minerals such as magnesium and iron and is also capable of removing toxic heavy metals from the system such as mercury. It can be added to many meals or drunk as a tea twice a day. Soak coriander leaves in hot water for ten minutes then sip slowly. Lemon juice and honey may be added to taste and extra vitamin C and anti-biotic properties. The seeds can also be crushed and added to meals daily.

  • Dried fruits

  • Garlic (three cloves per day) Always chop and leave for ten minutes before cooking or consuming to allow the allicin to be produced.

  • Grapes (black or red)

  • Green tea (three cups per day)

  • Hemp seeds are a super food which has nigh nutritional content (rich in fatty acids, minerals and all essential amino acids) and has properties that invigorate circulation and metabolism and protect and feed the brain cells.

  • Honey

  • Jergon sacha: (The corms/roots of this Amazonian plant can be used to control and steady the shaking hands of Parkinson's disease).

  • Krill oil is rich in astaxanthin which is very beneficial to the brain. One 1000 mg capsule should be consumed daily.

  • Leafy greens: one serving of a leafy green should be consumed daily especially rocket, spinach or watercress

  • Maqui berry is a 'super berry' from the Chile and Argentinean regions of South America which contains the highest amount of antioxidants and anti inflammatory compounds than any other known natural food. Regular consumption can help to prevent and treat the symptoms of Parkinson's disease.

  • Mineral water: Drink one litre of bottled mineral water per day to avoid chemicals additives such as fluoride and chlorine and provide more of the essential minerals the body needs. One glass should be consumed just before sleeping to help the body eliminate waste and toxins from the body and the brain.

  • Mushrooms

  • Nasturtium (freshly pressed)

  • Oily fish (three times a week)

  • Papaya

  • Pineapple is a useful addition to the diet as it can help to rehydrate the brain and remove heavy metals, microbes, parasites and toxins from the body as well as reduce inflammation and aid with digestion.

  • Pine nuts are rich in healthy oils the brain requires for proper functioning.

  • Pomegranate juice (two glasses per day)

  • Pumpkin seeds (one tablespoon per day)

  • Radishes

  • Rapeseed oil

  • Sea salt (pure unrefined) or Himalayan pink salt crystals. Never consume plain table salt as it has had all the beneficial minerals removed during processing.

  • Sesame oil

  • Shellfish

  • Sunflower seeds (one tablespoon per day)

  • Turmeric has powerful healing properties and half a teaspoon should be consumed per day sprinkled onto dishes such as egg, fish, rice or vegetables.

  • Walnuts (five halves per day)

Brine pickling is a way to add extra probiotic bacteria to the diet. It is very easy to make brine pickles using just water and salt.

Fibre: A diet rich in both soluble and insoluble fibre is essential for combating the symptoms of Parkinson's disease.

High sources of fibre

Grape seeds: Recently, a compound was found in grape seeds which activates a protein called c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK). On the molecular level, JNK influences cellular functions by tagging other proteins with a phosphate chemical group (a process known as phosphorylation), a common mechanism cells use to turn enzymes on and off. Phosphorylation is so important that when JNK goes awry, a number of different disorders can result, such as Parkinson's disease. This JNK activating compound cannot be found in seedless grapes or grape seed oil (as the process to make the oil removes it).

Herbs and spices: The following have medicinal properties beneficial to individuals with Parkinson's disease. Add to meals daily and make teas by steeping leaves in hot water for ten minutes. Lemon juice and honey may be added for even more health benefits as well as taste. Drink two to three cups per day.

CAUTION: Many herbs are powerful and can react with medications. Always check before taking at the same time as any drugs. Some yeasts, especially brewer’s yeast, can  also interact with medications. Those who are on Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor antidepressants (MAOIs) medication are especially at risk. Yeast is also best avoided by those carrying the herpes virus as it can induce a attack.

Raw juice therapy can help to provide essential nutrients that can combat the symptoms of Parkinson's disease.

The best foods to juice for Parkinson's disease

  • Apples

  • Apricots

  • Beetroot

  • Blueberries

  • Carrots

  • Celery

  • Cranberry

  • Cucumber

  • Ginger

  • Grapes

  • Lemon

Sprouting grains, legumes, nuts and seeds can add high concentrations of vital nutrients to the diet and is easy to do using a jam jar and a daily rinse of water. Sprouts will be ready to consume around  five days later.

 

Important notes

  • Non-heme iron is found in tea and dark green leafy vegetables like spinach and kale. However, tea and green leafy vegetables also contain oxalates that block the absorption of iron. To assist the body in the absorption of non-heme iron eat a couple of strawberries, a kiwi fruit or some orange, tangerine or mango at the same time.

  • To benefit from foods containing fat-soluble nutrients, such as the carotenoids in carrots and tomatoes, always eat together with fatty foods such as avocado, rapeseed oil, olive oil, fish, nut or other seed oils because fat-soluble means they will only be absorbed into the body along with fats

  • Pick one of the six colours of fruit and vegetables to consume daily. Yellow/orange, white, red, green, black/blue/purple and cream/brown. Nature has kindly colour coded natural food and each colour provides specific nutrients and minerals in the right balances which are required daily. At least one iron-rich green leafy vegetable should also be consumed daily. If appetite does not allow enough consumption, juice them or make teas by steeping them in hot water for 20 minutes, then strain and drink immediately to gain the nutrients without the bulk. Teas can be gently reheated and honey and lemon added to make them more palatable and to add additional beneficial nutrients. See Nature's colour codes

  • Try to avoid any foods with additives especially preservatives or aspartame, refined and processed foods, coffee,  fizzy drinks, sugar, white flour and white rice (choose whole grains and brown or wild rice).

  • Only eat organic fruit and vegetables whenever possible because of the pesticides, herbicides and fungicides used on conventional products.

See also

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