Blepharitus (caused by bacteria infection - foreign body sensation, burning pain, dry eyes, sticky eyes, crusty eyelid, eyelash particles, painful eyelid, puffy eyelids) Blepharitis may produce the feeling that something is in the eye. The eyes and lids may itch, burn, and become red. The eyelid may swell and some of the lashes may fall out. The eyes may become red, teary and sensitive to bright light. A crust may form and stick tenaciously to the edges of the lid; when the crust is removed, it may leave a bleeding surface. During sleep, dried secretions make the lids sticky.
Blepharitis tends to recur and stubbornly resist treatment. It's inconvenient and unattractive but usually not destructive. Occasionally, it can result in a loss of the eyelashes, scarring of the lid margins and even damage to the cornea.
Treatment consists of keeping the eyelids clean by washing them twice a day with baby shampoo. Moisturising the eyelids with cold pressed coconut oil can help clear infection and prevent dryness. In severe cases, a doctor may prescribe an antibiotic ointment, such as erythromycin or sulfacetamide or an oral antibiotic, such as tetracycline. When the person's skin is also affected with seborrheic dermatitis, the face and scalp must be treated as well.
Blepharochalasis (droopy eyelid)
Blepharoconjunctivitis (sticky eyes, burning pain, dry eyes, pain around eyes, red or pink eye)
Blepharospasm (frequent blinking or a twitching eyelid) This is an uncontrollable blinking or spasm of the upper eyelid. Most people develop a minor and temporary eyelid twitch at some point in their lives and the cause may be through excessive caffeine, fatigue or stress. Sometimes it can be caused by blepharitis (inflammation of the eyelids), conjunctivitis, dry eyes or light sensitivity. Rarely it can be a sign of a brain or nerve disorder, such as Bell's palsy, dystonia, Parkinson's disease or some treatments for Parkinson's disease or tourette's syndrome. Some medications
can also cause it such as those used in the treatment of psychosis and epilepsy.
Blurred vision (distorted depth perception). Blurred vision has many causes, from fatigue and eyestrain to serious eye diseases such as glaucoma.
Branch retinal vein occlusion (blockage of small veins in retina)
Canaliculitis (discharge from eye, red or pink eye)
Cataracts (distorted colours, white or cloudy spot on eye)
Cavernous sinus problem (bulging eye, red or pink eye)
Cellulitis (bacterial infection can affect both eyes and skin) For natural remedies see Cellulitis
Chalazion (caused by enlarged oil-producing gland in eyelid - painful bump on eyelid) A chalazion is an enlargement of a long, thin oil gland in the eyelid that results from an obstruction of the gland opening at the edge of the eyelid. At first, a chalazion looks and feels like a stye: swollen eyelid, pain and irritation. However, after a few days the symptoms disappear, leaving a round, painless swelling in the eyelid that grows slowly for the first week. A red or grey area may develop underneath the eyelid. Most chalazions disappear without treatment after a few months. If hot
compresses are applied several times a day, they may disappear sooner. If they remain after six weeks, a doctor can drain them or simply inject a corticosteroid.
Chemosis (swelling eye)
Central serous retinopathy (fluid builds up under the retina and distorts vision)
Choroidal neovascular membranes (blood vessels grow beneath retina and disrupt vision - associated with serious eye diseases)
Cytomegalovirus retinitis (CMV retinitis) (a serious viral infection of retina)
Coloboma (iris defect, cleft eyelid)
Colour blindness (distorted colours)
Computer vision syndrome (eye strain, dry eyes, burning pain, red or pink eye)
Conjunctivitis (red or pink eye, sticky eyes, dry eyes, discharge from eye, itchy eyes, burning pain)
Contact lens problems (discharge from eye, itchy eyes, burning pain, red or pink eye)
Convergence insufficiency (eye strain, double vision)
Corneal abrasion (red or pink eye)
Corneal dystrophy (distorted depth perception, double vision, foreign body sensation, red or pink eye, burning pain, poor night vision, light sensitivity, shadow on letters)
Corneal oedema (foreign body sensation, white or cloudy spot on eye)
Corneal erosion (foreign body sensation)
Corneal opacity (white or cloudy spot on eye)
Corneal ulcer (red or pink eye, white or cloudy spot on eye)
Learn about having corneal graft surgery.
Cranial nerve palsy (dry eyes, crossed eyes, double vision, distorted depth perception, infrequent blinking, burning, limited eye and/or eyelid movement ability, eyes point in different directions, dilated pupils, pupil unresponsive to light)
Cytomegalovirus retinitis (blind spots or blurred vision, floaters and flashes, loss of peripheral vision) Caused by an infection of the Cytomegalovirus. This virus is a common source of infection in humans and generally lays dormant in the body without producing symptoms. While most people’s immune systems are able to fend it off, those with weakened immune systems are vulnerable to it. It is particularly prevalent in people with HIV/AIDS. It must be treated promptly as it can lead to blindness.
Dacryoadenitis (dry eyes)
Dacryocystitis (red or pink eye, sticky eye, discharge from eye)
Dacryostenosis (sticky eye, discharge from eye)
Dermatochalasis (droopy eyelid)
Detached retina See Diabetes
Diabetic retinopathy (double vision, blurred vision near)
Divergence insufficiency (eye strain, double vision)
Double vision (diplopia): Many conditions cause double vision: cataracts, accommodative disorder, astigmatism, cranial nerve palsy, diabetic retinopathy, eye tumour (orbital), Graves' ophthalmology, keratoconus, lens dislocation, myasthenia gravis, ophthalmoplegia, pseudotumor cerebri, stroke, vascular problem, vergence disorder.
Drugs (distorted colours, dry eyes, small pupils, dilated pupils, pupil unresponsive to light)
Dry eye syndrome (dry eyes, red or pink eye, foreign body sensation, itchy eyes, burning pain)
Ectropion (eyelid turns out, painful eyelid, red or pink eye)
Epiretinal membrane (a thin sheet of fibrous tissue that develops on the surface of the macula and can cause problems with central vision)
Endophthalmitis (red or pink eye)
Enophthalmos (small eye)
Entropion and ectropion (foreign body sensation, itchy eyes, painful eyelid, red or pink eye) Entropion is a condition in which the eyelid is turned in against the eyeball. Ectropion is a condition in which the eyelid is turned outward and doesn't come in contact with the eyeball. Normally, the upper and lower eyelids close tightly, protecting the eye from damage and preventing tear evaporation. If the edge of one eyelid turns in (entropion), the lashes rub against the eye, which can lead to ulceration and scarring of the
cornea. If the edge of one eyelid turns outward (ectropion), the two eyelids can't meet properly, and tears aren't spread over the eyeball. These conditions are more common in older people and in those who have had an eyelid injury that caused scar formation. Both conditions can irritate the eyes, causing tearing and redness. Both can be treated by surgery, if necessary.
Environmental condition (dry eyes, burning pain)
Episcleritis (red or pink eye)
Eyelid inflammation (blepharitis) causes redness and thickening; scales and crusts or shallow ulcers often form on the eyelids, as well. Conditions that may occur with eyelid inflammation include Staphylococcal bacterial infection on the eyelids and in the oil (sebaceous) glands at the edges of the lids, seborrheic dermatitis of the face and scalp or rosacea.
Eyelid swelling: Anything that irritates the eyes can also irritate the eyelids and cause swelling (lid oedema). The most common irritant is an allergy, which can make one or both lids crinkled and swollen. Allergic reactions may be caused by medications instilled into the eyes, such as eye drops; other drugs or cosmetics; or pollen or other particles in the air. Insect stings or bites as well as infections from bacteria, viruses, or fungi can also cause the
eyelids to swell. Removing the cause of swelling and applying cold compresses may relieve the swelling. If an allergy is the cause, avoiding the allergen can alleviate the swelling; a doctor may also prescribe drug therapy. If a foreign object such as an insect stinger is lodged in the eyelid, it must be removed.
Eye occlusions (eye strokes)
Eye tumour (bulging eye, iris defect, foreign body sensation, double vision, limited eye and/or eyelid movement ability, pain around eyes, painful eyelid, coloured, white or cloudy spot on eye, red or pink eye) Noncancerous (benign) and cancerous (malignant) growths can form on the eyelids. One of the most common types of benign tumor is xanthelasma, a yellow-white, flat growth that consists of fatty material. Xanthelasmas needn't be removed unless their appearance becomes bothersome. Because xanthelasmas may indicate elevated cholesterol levels (especially in young people), a
doctor will check the person's cholesterol level. Squamous cell carcinoma and the more common basal cell carcinoma, both cancerous growths, can develop on the eyelid as well as on many other areas of the skin. If a growth on the eyelid doesn't disappear after several weeks, a doctor may perform a biopsy (removal of a specimen and examination under a microscope), and the growth is treated, usually with surgery.
Floaters, flashes and distorted spots (can cause shadows and annoying movements of particles in front of the vision) It is usually harmless and untreatable but should be checked to ensure it is not caused by macular and retina problems. Floaters are common and not usually a serious condition but if they increase dramatically it could be a sign of the retina detaching which is an emergency and should be treated immediately.
Foreign body (discharge from eye, red or pink eye and pain)
Fuchs’ dystrophy (progressive eye disease of cornea, causing cells to die, making corneal cells swollen and cloudy). See below more about corneal dystrophy and surgery to correct it. Corneal dystrophy.
Fungal keratitis infection (clouded eye surface, discharge from eye, swelling eye, light sensitivity, red or pink eye) This is an infection of the cornea, often due to improper cleaning of contact lenses or from injury.
Giant cell arteritis (reduced blood flow can cause sudden, painless vision loss)
Glaucoma (red or pink eye, bulging eye, pupil unresponsive to light)
Graves' ophthalmology (red or pink eye, bulging eye, double vision, limited eye movement ability)
Hay fever (itchy eyes and swollen eyelids) See Hay fever
Hemi-facial spasm (twitching of the muscles near to the eye) This is a rare neuromuscular disease characterised by irregular, involuntary muscle contractions on one side of the face. may be caused by a blood vessel touching a facial nerve, a facial nerve injury, Bell’s palsy or a tumour or it may not have known a cause. The facial nerve is primarily a motor nerve, meaning it controls muscles that move the eyebrows, close the eyes and move
the mouth and lips. The average age of onset is 44 years and occurs slightly more in women. Many people experience twitching of an eye temporarily and this is not usually a serious problem unless it continues and affects the vision. See Twitching eye below.
Herpetic eye disease: Herpes zoster (shingles virus) and the herpes simplex virus type I (cold sores) and type II (genital herpes) can also affect the eyes. Usually it affects the cornea and can be quite painful but it can affect other parts of the eye such as the retina or cause a macular oedema to develop. Treatment is usually steroid eye drops but a healthy immune system from a balanced diet can reduce the severity of the infection. It is important to never touch the eyes after touching sores from an attack of herpes anywhere else on the body. See
Herpes for natural remedies.
Heterochromia (eyes different colours)
Higher-order aberrations (HOAs) (vision errors causing poor night vision or double images)
Histiocytosis (bulging eye)
HIV/Aids (susceptible to infections of the eye) See HIV/Aids
Horner's syndrome (small pupils)
Hyperopia (eye strain, squinting, blurred vision near, farsightedness) means people can have poor near vision or blurred vision at all distances.
Hypotony (usually defined as an intraocular pressure of 5 mm Hg or less. This can adversely impact the eye in many ways, including corneal decompensation, accelerated cataract formation, maculopathy and discomfort)
Jaundice (yellow eyes caused by liver disease) For natural remedies see Jaundice.
Keratitus acanthamoeba (discharge from eye, foreign body sensation)
Keratoconus (double or distorted vision)
Lachrymal sac infection Usually, infection of the lachrymal sac (dacryocystitis) results from a blockage of the nasolachrymal duct. The infection makes the area around the sac painful, red, and swollen. The eye becomes red and watery and oozes pus. Slight pressure applied to the sac may push pus through the opening at the inner corner of the eye, near the nose. The person also has a fever. If a mild or recurring infection continues for a long time, most of the symptoms may disappear, with only slight swelling of the area remaining. Sometimes, an infection causes fluid to be
retained in the lachrymal sac, and a large fluid-filled sac (mucocele) forms under the skin. Recurring infections may produce a thickened, red area over the sac. An abscess may form and rupture through the skin, creating a passage for drainage. The infection is treated with oral or intravenous antibiotics. Applying frequent warm compresses to the area also helps. If an abscess develops, surgery is performed to open and drain it. For chronic infections, the blocked nasolacrimal duct may be opened with a probe or by surgery. In rare instances, surgical removal of the entire lachrymal sac may be necessary.
Lens dislocation (double vision)
Leukocoria (white or cloudy spot on eye)
Liver spot (coloured spot on eyelid)
Lupus erythematosus (coloured spot on eyelid)
Macular degeneration (distorted vision, shadow on letters)
Macular dystrophy (loss of central vision) This is a form of rare, genetic eye disorder that affects the retina in the back of a person's eye.
Macular hole (blurred and distorted central vision) This is a small break in the macula, located in the centre of the eye's light-sensitive tissue called the retina. The macula provides the sharp, central vision needed for reading, driving and seeing fine detail.
Macular oedema (swelling in centre of retina causing small irregular shadow in centre of vision and sometimes lettering appears smaller due to distortion caused by the swelling) Macular oedema causes pressure to increase inside the eye. A dark shadowy spot can be seen in the middle of the eye when looking at light surfaces after closing the eye and when looking at text the type seems smaller in the middle. There a few causes of a macular oedema, herpetic eye disease, caused by the herpes virus, being one of them.
Madarosis (eyelash loss)
Meibomianitis (red or pink eye, dry eyes, burning pain)
Melanosis (coloured or brown spot on eye)
Metamorphopsia (distorted depth perception)
Microphthalmia (small eye)
Migraine (distorted vision, light flashes)
Milia (bump on the eyelid)
Mucormycosis (bulging eye)
Myasthenia gravis (double vision)
Myopia (squinting, blurred distance vision, short sightedness, poor night vision) This means people can see fine up close, but distant objects are a blur.
Nasolachrymal duct blockage Blockage of the nasolachrymal duct (dacryostenosis) can result from inadequate development of the nasolachrymal system at birth, a chronic nasal infection, severe or recurring eye infections or fractures of the nasal or facial bones. Blockage can be partial or complete. Blockage caused by an immature nasolachrymal system usually results in an overflow of tears that runs down the cheek (epiphora) from one eye or, rarely, from both eyes in 3- to 12-week-old infants. This type of blockage usually disappears without treatment by the age of 6 months, as the
nasolachrymal system develops. Sometimes the blockage resolves faster when parents are taught to milk the duct by gently massaging the area above it with a fingertip. Regardless of the cause of the blockage, if inflammation of the conjunctiva (conjunctivitis) develops, antibiotic eye drops may be needed. If the blockage doesn't clear up, an ear, nose, and throat specialist (otorhinolaryngologist) or an eye specialist (ophthalmologist) may have to open the duct with a small probe, usually inserted through the duct opening at the corner of the eyelid. Children are given general anaesthesia for this procedure, but adults need only local anaesthesia. If the duct is completely blocked, more
extensive surgery may be needed.
Neuroretinitis (distorted colours)
Nevus (bump on eyelid, coloured or brown spot on eye)
Nystagmus (involuntary eye movement) This is constant uncontrolled movement of the eyes that are usually side to side but can also be up and down or in a circular motion and can be caused by albinism.
Ocular hypertension (increased eye pressure needs attention as can cause retina detachment)
Ocular migraine (distorted vision, light flashes) For natural remedies see Migraine
Ocular rosacea (inflammation that causes redness, burning and itching of the eyes) For natural remedies see Rosacea
Onchocerciasis (the second leading infectious cause of blindness)
Ophthalmoplegia (double vision, limited eye movement ability)
Optic nerve problems (bulging eye, distorted colours, pupil unresponsive to light)
Optic neuritis and neuropathy (distorted vision, reduced colour vision and pain when the eyes are moved) Inflammation of the optic nerve, caused by damage to and loss of the protective sheath (myelin) surrounding this nerve that is vital for good vision. Can be caused by reduced blood flow or toxic exposure.
Orbital cellulitis (bulging eye, painful eyelid) For natural remedies see Cellulitis
Orbital pseudotumour (bulging eye, pain around eyes)
Opsoclonus (involuntary eye movement)
Overflow tearing (discharge from eye)
Papilloma (bump on eye or eyelid, coloured spot on eyelid)
Parinaud dorsal midbrain syndrome (limited eye movement ability, pupil unresponsive to light)
Parkinson's disease (infrequent blinking) For natural remedies see Parkinson's disease.
Pediculosis (coloured spots on eyelid) Infestation of lice or louse on the eyelashes. For natural remedies see Lice.
Peripheral vision loss (tunnel vision) This can have various causes, including glaucoma and anophthalmos. Eye "strokes" (occlusions) that block normal blood flow to the eye's internal structures, including the optic nerve, also can lead to loss of peripheral vision. A stroke or injury also may damage portions of the brain where images are processed, leading to blind spots in the visual field.
Photokeratitis or ultraviolet keratitis (pain in the eyes) This is a painful eye condition caused by exposure of insufficiently protected eyes to the ultraviolet (UV) rays from either natural ( intense sunlight) or artificial (the electric arc during welding) sources.
Photophobia (squinting, light sensitivity)
Photopsia (brief flashes of light in the peripheral vision)
Pinguecula (bump on eye, yellow, white or cloudy spot on eye)
Posner-Schlossman syndrome (high eye pressure and mild inflammation) This is an uncommon inflammatory eye condition that usually affects one eye at a time and typically affects young to middle-aged adults.
Presbyopia (squinting, eye strain, blurred vision near) This means difficulty seeing close up for people 40 and older.
Pseudotumour cerebri (double vision)
Pterygium (red or pink eye, bump on eye, foreign body sensation, itchy eyes, white or cloudy spot on eye)
Ptosis (drooping eyelid, small eye)
Retinal detachment (a sudden or gradual increase in either the number of floaters and/or light flashes in the eye or the appearance of a curtain over the field of vision) This occurs when the thin lining at the back of the eye begins to pull away from the blood vessels that supply it and is a medical emergency as if left untreated can result in irreversible blindness.
Retinal tear (light flashes)
Retinitis (blind spots or blurred vision, floaters and flashes, loss of peripheral vision) This can be caused by an infection of the Cytomegalovirus. This virus is a common source of infection in humans and generally lays dormant in the body without producing symptoms. While most people’s immune systems are able to fend it off, those with weakened immune systems are vulnerable to it. It is particularly prevalent in people with HIV/AIDS.
Retinitis pigmentosa (poor night vision,a gradual reduction in the peripheral field of vision, loss of the outer edges of vision, tunnel vision ) Usually begins between the ages of 10 and 30, although some changes may become apparent in childhood.
Retinoschisis (flashes of light, floaters, sparkles of light, or shadows) Juvenile X-linked retinoschisis is a genetic disease of the retina and affects primarily boys and young men. Degenerative retinoschisis is the splitting of the retina as a result of aging. It can lead to retinal detachment and blindness if not treated so must be investigated promptly when symptoms appear.
Rheumatoid arthritis (dry eyes, burning pain, discharge from eye) For natural remedies see Rheumatoid arthritis.
Sarcoidosis (dry eyes)
Scleritis (red or pink eye)
Sinusitis (pain around eyes) This caused by an infection or allergy affecting the sinuses. For natural remedies see Sinusitis
Sjogren's syndrome (dry eyes, itchy eyes, burning pain, discharge from eye, foreign body sensation) If the lachrymal glands do not produce enough tears, the eyes can become painfully dry and can be damaged. A rare cause of inadequate tear production is Sjogren's syndrome. The eyes can also become dry when evaporation causes an excessive loss of tears, for example, if the eyelids do not close properly. There are now effective eye drops available to relieve these symptoms.
Skin cancer (bump on eyelid, coloured or brown spot on eye) For natural remedies see Cancer
Stargardt's disease (progressive vision loss) This is the most common form of inherited juvenile macular degeneration. The progressive vision loss is caused by the death of photoreceptor cells in the central portion of the retina called the macula.
Strabismus (crossed eyes, distorted depth perception, eyes point in different directions)
Stroke (frequent blinking, double vision, limited eye movement ability) For natural remedies and ways to reconsise and protect against them see Strokes
Stye (bump on eyelid, foreign body sensation, painful eyelid) A stye (hordeolum) is an infection, usually a Staphylococcal bacterial infection, of one or more of the glands at the edge of the eyelid or under it. An abscess forms and tends to rupture, releasing a small amount of pus. Styes sometimes form simultaneously with or as a result of blepharitis. A person may have one or two styes in a lifetime, but some people develop them repeatedly. A stye usually begins with redness, tenderness, and pain at the edge of the eyelid. Then a small, round, tender, swollen area forms. The
eye may water, become sensitive to bright light, and feel as though something is in it. Usually, only a small area of the lid is swollen, but sometimes the entire lid swells. Often a tiny, yellowish spot develops at the center of the swollen area. Although antibiotics are used, they don't seem to help much. The best treatment is to apply hot compresses for 10 minutes several times a day. The warmth helps the stye come to a head, rupture and drain. When a stye forms in one of the deeper glands of the eyelid, a condition called an internal hordeolum, the pain and other symptoms are usually more severe. Pain, redness, and swelling tend to occur in just a very small area, usually at the edge of
the eyelid. Because this type of stye rarely ruptures by itself, a doctor may have to open it to drain the pus. Internal styes tend to recur.
Subconjunctival haemorrhage (red or pink eye)
Surgery (red or pink eye, foreign body sensation, iris defect)
Tonic pupil (pupil unresponsive to light)
Trichotillomania (eyelash loss)
Twitching eye or blepharospasm (involuntary blinking or muscle twitching near the eye or of the eyelid) This is an uncontrollable blinking or spasm of the upper eyelid. Most people develop a minor and temporary eyelid twitch at some point in their lives and the cause may be through excessive caffeine, fatigue or stress. Sometimes it can be caused by blepharitis (inflammation of the eyelids), conjunctivitis, dry eyes or light sensitivity. Rarely it can be a sign of a brain or nerve disorder,
such as Bell's palsy, dystonia, Parkinson's disease or some treatments for Parkinson's disease or tourette's syndrome. Some medications can also cause it such as those used in the treatment of psychosis and epilepsy. In very rare cases, it be caused by a neurological condition see Hemi-facial spasm.
Uveitis (squinting, red or pink eye, pupil unresponsive to light, vision defects) This is the inflammation of the uvea, the pigmented layer that lies between the inner retina and the outer fibrous layer composed of the sclera and cornea. The uvea consists of the middle layer of pigmented vascular structures of the eye and includes the iris, ciliary body and choroid. Uveitis may be caused by eye surgery, such as cataract removal, or a result of many of the eye disorders listed here or may be a normal immune response to fight a bacterial, fungal, parasite or viral infection
inside the eye or due to any of the conditions listed below. Follow the blue links to find out more and natural remedies to treat these conditions.